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Citation Guide

Get help and resources for citing in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles.

Basic Tips for Citing in Chicago

  • Chicago is different from other styles as it uses Footnotes at the bottom of every page, so instead of in-text citations in parentheses, numbers are used in the body of the paper and anything cited on that page is included in the footnotes on that same page with the corresponding number.
  • You will also include a bibliography at the end, which should be titled: Bibliography
  • Put your sources your Bibliography in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
  • Citations in your Bibliography should be single-spaced, and all lines after the first line of each citation should be indented. There should be one space between each complete citation.
  • Citations in your Footnotes should be single-spaced with no indentation on second or third lines.

Using Chicago Style


Lastname, Firstname. Title of the Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Date.  

Hallowell, Edward M. The Childhood Roots of Adult Happiness: Five Steps to Help Kids Create and Sustain Lifelong Joy.
    New York: Ballantine Books, 2002.




Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article: Subtitle of the Article.” Name of Periodical Volume, Issue no. Date: page #s.

Anderson, Jon Lee. “War Wounds: Bombs Fall and the Lights Go Out.” The New Yorker 79, no.8, April 14, 2003: 46-52.

Tanner, Lindsey. “Childhood Obesity Studied.” Boston Globe April 9, 2003: A4.


From a library database:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article: Subtitle of the Article.” Name of Periodical Volume, Issue no. Date: page #s. Permalink or DOI.

Niemi, Richard G., and Jonathan D. Klingler. "The Development of Political Attitudes and Behaviour Among Young Adults."
     Australian Journal Of Political Science 47, no. 1 (March 2012): 31-54. doi: 10.1080/10361146.2011.643167


Web Sources:

Author (or Sponsor if no author is given). “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website. Date. URL.

Dolce, Chris. "The Storm That Killed 300,000." The Weather Channel. 25 Apr 2014.




Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year. Medium.

Eggers, Robert, dir. The Witch. 2015. New York, NY: A24, 2015, on Amazon Prime.

  Online Video (YouTube):

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Work." Additional contributors. Publishing organization. Publication date. Indication of format/medium, running time. URL.

Ortega, Alejandra. “Grammar: Active and Passive Voice.” Purdue OWL. February 1, 2019. Video, 4:22.

If the video has a username instead of the author's name, use the username as the author:

Ghost Rich. "Ron Simmons Saying Damn." October 22, 2013. YouTube video, 0:07.



Although Socrates is often quoted, he never wrote anything. We know him only because Plato wrote about him.1 What would Socrates think if he were to appear in the United States today? As an ancient wise man, Socrates would applaud contemporary studies claiming “if a child can become comfortably connected to the act of learning and the world of information and ideas, then her chances of pleasure and success in life rise dramatically.” 2 As much as he believed in learning, Socrates believed in community service. How would he respond if he heard that America's youngest adults are less likely than any before them to actually vote? 3 Socrates would certainly agree that “war always brings tragedy, fear, pain, and psychological trauma.” 4 He would also agree with an Iraqi doctor treating victims of war who said, “I feel that problems can be solved by discussion and negotiation and collaboration. When you use military power, it means your brain has stopped.” 5


1 Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed., s.v. “Socrates.”

2 Edward M. Hallowell, The Childhood Roots of Adult Happiness: Five Steps to Help Kids Create and Sustain Lifelong Joy (New York: Ballantine Books, 2002), 75.

3 “Generation Y’s First Vote,” Newsweek, July 7, 2000, 

4 Jon Lee Anderson, “War Wounds: Bombs Fall and the Lights Go Out,” The New Yorker 79, no.8, April 14, 2003, 46.  

5 Anderson, “War Wounds,” 46.


Tables in Chicago 17 ed. style should follow the format depicted below. In this example, the author cites a table from a primary source. Therefore, there should be a note below the table stating where the tables have been adopted. This should be included as a “Source.”  There should also be a note with a description of the table.

Chicago Style Table format


Chicago 17ed. classifies illustrations and graphics as figures. The citation for the figure should follow the example below.  Notice that the description starts with “FIGURE [number],” followed by the description.


The library offers FREE access to the citation manager NoodleTools. NoodleTools can help you keep track of and organize your citations, and automatically create bibliographies. Click on the image or link below for more information.


Noodletools login screen

Here are some other resources that you may find helpful in learning how to appropriately cite materials using the Chicago Manual of Style

If you need more assistance, please ask a librarian.

To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:

APA: Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page. Title of LibGuide. URL

MLA: Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.