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Computer Information Sciences

Resources for students studying Computer and Information Sciences at NECC

In October 2019 the American Psychological Association released an update to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This style manual is now in its seventh edition. The information on this page pertains to APA 7 only. If you are looking for information on APA 6, please see:

APA 7th Edition

Basic tips for Citing in APA

  • Title your bibliography References. Be sure that the word References is center-aligned and in bold.
  • All citations should be double-spaced and have any lines after the first indented by half an inch. This is called a hanging indent.
  • Alphabetize all citations by the author's last name. If the source does not have an author, alphabetize it by the title.
  • If an author’s name and a website name are the same, omit it from the source portion. If there is no author, move the title to the beginning of the citation. If an author's name and a publisher's name are the same, omit it from the publisher portion.
  • When doing in-text citations, you only need to put a page number if you are using a direct quote. 
  • Do not use copyright or review dates in place of publication dates. If no date of publication or last update is given, use (n.d.).

Citations Using APA 7th Edition

Basic format for a book or eBook

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of book: Capital letter for the first word of the subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL


Authored book with a DOI

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd edition). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

 

Authored book without a DOI

Everly, G.S., Jr., & Lating, J. M. (2017). The Johns Hopkins guide to psychological first aid. Johns Hopkins University Press.


Basic format for a book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter: Capital letter for the first word of the subtitle. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book: Capital letter for the first word of the subtitle (Edition, Vol. #, pp. x-xx). Publisher Name. DOI or URL


Book chapter

Barreto, A. R., Campos, M. M., Dias, M. C. M., Friedmann, A., Haddad, L., Kishimoto, T. M., Vitoria, T. (2007). Brazil. In R. S. New & M. Cochran (Eds.), Early childhood education: An international encyclopedia (Vol. 4, pp. 914-970). Praeger.

 

Work in an anthology

Vicioso, S. (2016). The Caribbean, or the feminine face of multiculturalism. In E. M. Martinez (Ed.), Daring to write: Contemporary narratives by Dominican women (pp. 159-163). University of Georgia Press. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41276-017-0075-x 

Use this format for periodicals, magazines, newspapers, blog posts, and other sources that are available in print and on the web. Do not use this for webpages, websites, and digital-only sources such as CNN, BBC News, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Mayo Clinic, etc...

 

Basic format for a periodical

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article: Capital letter for the first word of the subtitle. Title of PeriodicalVolume(Issue), page-page. DOI or URL

 

Do not use copyright or review dates in place of publication dates. If no date of publication or last update is given, use (n.d.).


Article with a DOI

Schwartz, J., Bind, M.-A., & Koutrakis, P. (2017). Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: Effect of low levels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(1), 23–29. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP232 

 

Article with a URL (newspaper)

Martin, N. (2019, February 5). New Hampshire’s opioid crisis looms over marijuana legalization debate. The Boston Globe. https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/marijuana/2019/02/05/new-hampshire-opioid-crisis-looms-over-marijuana-legalization-debate/xBoezjtW0FzPbU1oyuS71M/story.html

 

Article with a URL (magazine)

Sciolino, E. (2020, May). The invention of hiking. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/invention-hiking-1-180974592/ 

 

Article with a URL (blog)

McKenna, N. (2020, April 14). The signaling pathways project: A FAIR portal into the cell signaling ‘omics data universe. PLOS Collectionshttps://blogs.plos.org/collections/the-signaling-pathways-project/

Use this format for webpages, websites, and digital-only sources such as CNN, BBC News, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Mayo Clinic. Do not use this for periodicals, magazines, newspapers, blog posts, and other sources that are available in print and on the web.

 

Basic format for web sources

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for the first word of the subtitle. Title of Website. URL

 

Do not use copyright or review dates in place of publication dates. If no date of publication or last update is given, use (n.d.).


Webpage on a news website

Shukman, D. (2019, April 2). What does air pollution do to our bodies? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47777103

 

Webpage on a website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.) About high blood pressure. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020, April 10). Recreational Therapists. U.S. Department of Labor.  https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/recreational-therapists.htm#tab-1​

 

Webpage on a website with no author

Tuscan white bean pasta. (2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. https://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/

Basic format for social media posts

Author, A. A. [@username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Insert the first 20 words of the post here [Description of audiovisuals if necessary] [Type of post]. Name of Site. URL


Facebook

Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month DD). Insert the first 20 words of the post here [Description of audiovisuals if necessary]. Facebook. URL

National Institute of Mental Health. (2020, May 7). Today is Children's Mental Health Awareness Day. If you’re concerned about your child’s mental health, where do you begin? Start [Image attached]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/nimhgov/posts/10159664588226978

 


Instagram

Author, A. A. [@username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Insert the first 20 words of the post here [Description of audiovisuals]Instagram. URL

Smithsonian Libraries [@silibraries]. (2020, May 14). Alpine Flowers Tales (Alpenblumenmärchen) is a 1922 illustrated storybook that describes the woodland adventures of two acorn children who get [Watercolor illustration]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CALfxZ1A6ck/ 


Twitter

Author, A. A. [@username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Insert the first 20 words of the post here [Description of audiovisuals if necessary] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, April 12). Harpy eagles—the largest of all the eagles—may look like something from a fantasy book, but in the wild [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1249400149731934208?s=20 

Basic format for visual media

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Role of authors). (Date of publication). Title of media: Capitalize the first letter of a subtitle [Description of media]. Publisher/Production Company. URL


Citing a film or tv series

Producer, A. A. & Producer, B. B. (Producers). (Year). Title of film or series: Capitalize the first letter of a subtitle [Description]. Production Company A; Production Company B. URL.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Ricciardi, L., & Demos, M. (Directors). (2015). Making a murderer [Television series]. Synthesis Films; Netflix. https://www.netflix.com/title/80000770

 


Citing an online video (YouTube, Vimeo, etc...)

Uploader, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work: Capitalize the first word of a subtitle [Description of work]. Publisher. URL

TED. (2011, May 2). Beware online “filter bubbles” [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/B8ofWFx525s

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8

 


Citing artwork in a museum or on a museum website

Artist, A. A. (Date of creation). Title of artwork: Capitalize the first word of a subtitle [Description of artwork]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL

Murakami, T. (2002). If the double helix wakes up... [Painting]. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/354616/if-the-double-helix-wakes-up?ctx=14b9a41f-1230-490c-9bf9-3b00357e070e&idx=1

Rostgaard, A. (1967). Cancion Protesta [Song Protest] [Silkscreen]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/7913


Citing artwork from a database

The following examples were found in various databases however, note that APA 7 discourages the use of Database names in citations. Additionally, even though the works of art are retrieved from databases, the database states where the images are held. You would cite that as the location instead of the database itself.

Artist, A. A. (Date of creation). Title of artwork: Capitalize the first word of a subtitle [Description of artwork]. Database Name, Database URL (do not use a permalink to the piece of art if it requires the user to log in. If that is the case simply put the URL of the database itself)

Helicobacter pylori bacterium [Photograph]. (n.d.). Science Photo Library, https://www.sciencephoto.com/

Homer, W. (1909). Right & left [Oil on canvas]. The Granger Collection, https://www.granger.com

Miró, J. (1918). Portrait of Juanita Obrador [Oil on canvas]. Art Institute of Chicago, https://www.artic.edu/

What is a DOI?

  • DOI stands for Direct Object Identifier
  • It is a string of numbers and letters that is unique to a specific piece of content. No two published materials will ever have the same DOI.

Why use a DOI and not a URL or Permalink?

  • DOIs will always remain stable whereas URLs have a tendency to change over time.
  • If you access an item from a database and use a permalink in your citation people will have to have authentication access for that database in order to retrieve the publication information.
  • Anyone who is able to search with a DOI will be taken to an open webpage with the publication information.

How do I find the DOI?

  • Most databases will provide the DOI in the detailed record of their materials. 
  • If you are looking at a PDF or print version of an article, the DOI will typically be on the first page near the copyright notice.
  • DOIs usually appear on articles in any of these formats:
    • https://doi.org/
    • http://dx.doi.org
    • DOI:

What if the DOI isn't on the article or book?

  • Most scholarly articles published after the year 2000 have DOIs associated with them. If you cannot find the DOI on the detailed record you can use the Crossref website to locate it.

For further information on using DOIs in APA Style references:


Click the image or link below to search Crossref.org for a DOI.

The library offers FREE access to the citation manager NoodleTools. NoodleTools can help you keep track of and organize your citations, and automatically create bibliographies. Click on the image or link below for more information.

NoodleTools log in screen

Here are some other resources that you may find helpful in learning how to appropriately cite materials using the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association​. 

If you need more assistance, please ask a librarian.


 

In-text Citations Using APA 7th Edition

There are two components of an APA style citation: the in-text citation (parenthetical or narrative), as well as the full Reference List entry at the end of the paper. Both components provide the information necessary for the reader to locate and retrieve the source(s) used to inform a paper. Each cited source in the text of your paper (in-text citation), must also appear in the Reference List. The following tabs contain examples of both parts of an APA citation.

Complete Citation

Your complete citation should include the name of the author, date of publication, the title of the source, the title of the journal/website, identifying information such as volume, issue, and page numbers, and either a DOI or a URL if available. This gets alphabetized and placed in the References section at the end of your paper. 

Example:

Hanauer, N. (2019, July). Education isn't enough. Atlantic, 324(1), 19-22.


 

In-Text Citation

Your in-text citation contains the last name of the author, the publication year, and page number (for direct quotes only), and is placed in the text of the sentence to which it relates. There are a few ways to do this, parenthetically, narratively, and using a direct quote. Parenthetical citations place the relevant information at the end of your sentence in parentheses, while narrative citations allow for the relevant information to be conveyed in the body of your sentence. As for direct quotes, there are a variety of ways to use them in your paper. APA style prefers that you frame them using your own words rather than simply dropping a quote in as its own sentence. See below for examples of each.

Parenthetical Citation Example:

The percentage of Americans with high-school diplomas has increased from approximately 50% in 1970 to 90% today (Hanauer, 2019).

Narrative Citation Example:

Hanauer (2019) found that the percentage of Americans with high-school diplomas has increased from approximately 50% in 1970 to 90% today.

Direct Quote Example:

One way to increase the quality of public schools is to “pay people enough to afford dignified middle-class lives” (Hanauer, 2019, p. 20).


Citing Multiple Works
When citing two or more sources in the same parentheses, alphabetize the citations, and separate each with a semicolon.

Example: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.; Everly & Lating, 2017; Shukman, 2019)

In-text citations can change based upon the number of authors that a source has. Follow the examples below for creating accurate in-text citations for your references.

Source with 1 Author


Reference List

Shukman, D. (2019, April 2). What does air pollution do to our bodies?. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47777103

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical

(Shukman, 2019)

Narrative

Shukman (2019)

Direct Quote

n/a


Source with 2 Authors

Reference List

Everly, G.S., Jr., & Lating, J. M. (2017). The Johns Hopkins guide to psychological first aid. Johns Hopkins University Press.

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical

(Everly & Lating, 2017)

Narrative

Everly & Lating (2017)

Direct Quote

(Everly & Lating, 2017, p. 86)


Source with 3 -20 authors*

Reference List

Schwartz, J., Bind, M.-A., & Koutrakis, P. (2017). Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: Effect of low levels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(1), 23–29. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP232

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical

(Schwartz et al., 2017)

Narrative

Schwartz et al. (2017)

Direct Quote

(Schwartz et al., 2017, p. 24)

*If there are 21 or more authors, consult section 9.8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition.

Some sources will not have individual authors, but rather group authors. In these instances, you will still need to cite the item as you would any source with an author. Follow the example below for an accurate in-text citation of a source with a group author.

It is important to note that you should always define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text. See sections 8.21 and 9.11 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition for more information.

Source with a group author

Reference List

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.) About high blood pressure. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm

First In-Text Citation Parenthetical
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.)
Narrative
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (n.d.)
 
Direct Quote
n/a
 
Subsequent In-Text Citations Parenthetical
(CDC, n.d.)
Narrative
CDC (n.d.)
 
Direct Quote
n/a

 

At times you will come across sources where there is no author listed. If this happens, use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. If the title is italicized in the reference entry, italicize it in your in-text citation. If the title is not italicized in the reference entry, place it in quotation marks. See section 8.14 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition for more information.

Source with no author
Reference List

Charles Hull. (n.d.). National Inventors Hall of Fame. https://www.invent.org/inductees/charles-hull

Where angels no longer fear to tread. (2008, March 19). The Economist, 386(8572), pp. 89-92. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2008/03/19/where-angels-no-longer-fear-to-tread

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical
(Charles Hull, n.d.)
(“Where angels,” 2008)

Narrative
Charles Hull (n.d.)
“Where angels” (2008)

Direct Quote
n/a
(“Where angels,” 2008, p. 91)

 

 

There are different ways to format quotes when they are used in your paper. Follow the guidelines below for proper formatting.


Short Quotations (Fewer than 40 words)

Include the quotation in the regular text of your paper. Be sure to use quotation marks and add an in-text citation with a page number (if applicable).

Example:

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.


Block Quotations (40 words or more)

If a quote has 40 or more words, treat it as a block quote. Start the block quote on its own line and indent the entire quote 0.5” from the left margin, be sure that it is also double-spaced, with no extra spaces before or after it. Do not use quotation marks for block quotes.


Use a parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation for the sentence or use the author and year in a narrative introduction before the quote. If you choose to use a narrative introduction, be sure to include the page number of the quote after the final punctuation.

Example 1:

There are a variety of barriers to student success when working on research assignments. An example of these barriers is citation style and formatting. Jones (1998) argues the following based on her experience as an instructor:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be
attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

 

Example 2:

There are a variety of barriers to student success when working on research assignments. An example of these barriers is citation style and formatting. Based on their experiences, some instructors found that:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help (Jones, 1998, p. 199).


To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:

APA: Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page. Title of LibGuide. URL

MLA: Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.