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Early Childhood Education

A guide to resources in international early childhood education.

Basic Tips for Citing in MLA

  • Your bibliography should be titled: Works Cited
  • Put your sources in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
  • Citations in your Works Cited should be double-spaced, and all lines after the first line of each citation should be indented.
  • In-text citations in the body of your paper/presentation should include the author's name and the page from which you got the information in parentheses: (Smith 204)

Citations Using MLA

Basic format for a book:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Year Published.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. Penguin Press, 2006.



Author or Editor (if given). Title: Subtitle of Book. Provider/Container. Publisher, date.

Bleeker, Maaike, editor. Anatomy Live: Performance and the Operating Theater. Ebrary ed., Amsterdam Univ. Press, 2008.

Basic format for periodicals:

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Date of Publication, pages.


Article from a newspaper:

Max, Arthur. “Blair Begins Mission as Mideast Envoy.” The Boston Globe, 24 July 2007, p. A3.


Article from a popular magazine:

Gugliotta, Guy. “The Maya: Glory and Ruin.” National Geographic, Aug. 2007, pp. 97‐109. 


Article from a scholarly or academic journal:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.



Smith, Gary, and Margaret Hwang Smith. "Like Mother, Like Daughter? An Economic Comparison of Immigrant Mothers and Their Daughters." International Migration, vol. 51, no. 2, 2013, pp. 181-190.



Wilson, Fernando A., and Jim P. Stimpson. "Trends In Fatalities From Distracted Driving In The United States, 1999 To 2008." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 11, 2010, pp. 2213-2219. Academic Search Premier, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.187179. Accessed 22 May 2014.

Basic format for web sources:

Author or Editor (if given). Name of Site. Publisher or Sponsor of the website (if not available, use N.p.), Date of site's creation, URL/DOI/permalink. Accessed date.

Dolce, Chris. The Storm That Killed 300,000., 25 Apr 2014, Accessed 22 May 2020.



Many web sources do not always provide all of the above information (such as an individual author, or a publication date). Check the links to the guides on the left for how to handle these situations or just ask a librarian!

Basic format for Twitter:

@Twitter handle. "Insert the entire tweet here." Twitter, DD Mon. YYYY, Time of the post*, URL of tweet. 
*to find the time of posting hover over the date of the posting itself. 

@BostonGlobe. "Not all potholes are created equal. Some have cost the City of Boston thousands of dollars in payments." Twitter, 2 Apr. 2018, 4:59 a.m., 

Basic format for Facebook:

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post*. Facebook, DD Mon. YYYY, Time of Post, URL.
*as Facebook posts can be lengthy, simply write your own short description of the post.

The Boston Globe. Eversource talks about ways to cut down on power outages. Facebook, 1 Apr. 2018, 10:15 p.m.,


For more help citing social media using MLA style please check out this page of the Purdue OWL website

Images follow a different citation style than other kinds of text-based works (like books and articles) but do still need to be cited. Just giving a hyperlink to where you found an image online is NOT enough. In your Works Cited, you'll want to include as much of the information below as you can:

  • Artist or creator’s name or username,  last name first
  • Title of the work, in italics
  • Date of creation
  • Medium of the work
  • Institution or city in which the work is located
  • Website or database, in italics
  • Medium of publication
  • Date of access

An MLA citation for a work of art will typically look like this:

Artist or username. Title. Date the image was created. Medium. Museum, City. Database name or title of site,  URL. Date of access.

Chagall, Marc. Village Street. 1930s. Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, Accessed 1 Oct. 2014.

An example from a database:

Chagall, Marc.The Yellow Room. 1911. Oil on canvas. Private collection. Artstor, Accessed 21 Sept. 2016.

The library offers FREE access to the citation manager NoodleTools. NoodleTools can help you keep track of and organize your citations, and automatically create bibliographies. Click on the image or link below for more information.

NoodleTools log in screen

Here are some other resources that you may find helpful in learning how to appropriately cite materials using the 8th edition of the Modern Language Association Handbook​. 

If you need more assistance, please ask a librarian.

To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:

APA: Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page. Title of LibGuide. URL

MLA: Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.